Great Lakes Flotation LLC
Profound Relaxation for Mind and Body

Resources and Scientific Research

Programming and Meta-programming in the Mind 

The float tank inventor, Dr. John C. Lilly,  developed a model of the mind that will be of interest to anyone serious about floating.  For more information about the connection between floating and the research on programming in the mind and to find out about available workshops and classes,  see Mental Arts  and Mind 2.0.
 
Recommended Reading

The office of Shaman byt John Worthington is foundational reading for anyone interested in floating and/or human consciousness.  It is also preparatory reading for the Introductory classes offered by Great Lakes Flotation and Mental Arts. 

 

Programming and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer is Lilly's first book on programming in the mind. It is part of the material covered in the Program Theory and Application course offered by Mental Arts.  


The Deep Self, Profound Relaxation and the Isolation Technique

The Quiet Center. 

The Center of the Cyclone.  

Science and Sanity by Alfred Korzybski is also well worth a look. 

Scientific and Medical Research on Floating   
 
Fibromyalgia and Stress Reduction

Scientific Research Compiled by the German Flotation Association

Scientific Research and Articles Compiled by Float for Health

Video by Penn State Researchers on Floating


A list of some of the research that has been done on the effects of  flotation therapy is at the bottom of this web page.

We often post new articles on our facebook page.  



Finding Flotation Centers in Other Communities

Floatation Locations is a Directory of isolation tank locations.

www.floatforhealth.net


http://www.floatdreams.com/wheretofloat.htm



Bibliography of Scientific Research   

Research topics within floatation therapy and REST (Reduced Environmental Simulus Therapy) include the following:

  • Stress Management
  • Sports and Athletic Performance
  • Creativity Enhancement
  • Chronic Pain and Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Dieting
  • Treatment for Alcohol and Substance Abuse
  • Smoking Cessation  (Quitting Smoking)
  • Behavioral Therapy
  • Anxiety
  • Children with Autism
  • Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • Physiological Effects
  • Other REST Literature

Stress Management

Literature on REST Research Stress Management Barabasz A., Barabasz M., Dyer R. & Rather N. (1993). Effects of Chamber REST, Flotation REST and Relaxation on Transient Mood State. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.113-120. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Ewy G., Sershon P., Freundlich T. (1990). The Presence or Absence of Light the REST Experience: Effects on Plasma Cortisol, Blood Pressure and Mood.Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.120-133. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Fine T. & Turner J.W. (1985). The Use of Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) in the Treatment of Essential Hypertension. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.136-143. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Helmreich N.E. (1990). The Critical Role of Personality and Organizational Factors as Determinants of Reactions to Restricted and Stressful Environments. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.51-61. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Jacobs, Heilbronner & Stanely. (1985). The Effects of Short Term Floatation REST on Relaxation. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.86-102. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Jacobs G.D., Kemp J.C., Keane K.M.& Belden A.D. (1985). A Preliminary Clinical Outcome Study on a Hospital Based Stress Management Program Utilizing Flotation REST Biofeedback. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.179-185. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Kuola G. M., Kemp J., Keane K.M. & Belden A., (1984).Replication of aClinicalOutcome Study on a Hospital-based Stress Management and Behavioral Medicine Program Utilizing Floatation REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) and Biofeedback. 2nd International Conference on REST. pp.127-135. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Dr. Schürbrock, (1996). Treatment of Psychosomatic Illnesses Through Mental Training and Floatations in Oxygenated Magnesium Sulfate Saturated Baths, For Instance in the Treatment of Chronic Relapsing Skin Diseases (Psoriasis, Neurodermatitis) 6th International REST Conference, San Francisco.

Dr. Schürbrock, (1996). Zur Adjuvanten Therapie Chronisch RezidivierterHauterkrankung (Psoriasis-Vulgaris, Neurodermitis) im Magnesium-Sulfat Schwebewasser-Tank in Kombination mit UV-Bestrahlung im Therapiezentrum "Haus Ebersberg".

Wickramasekera I. (1993). A Model of the Common "Active Ingredient" in Stress Reduction Techniques. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.59-74. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

 

Sports and Athletic Performance

Baker D.A. (1990). The Use of REST in the Enhancement of Sports Performance-Tennis. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.181-187. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Bond J. (1997). "To float or not to float"... is that the question? How to maximise your use of the Sport Psychology float tanks.

McAleney P. & Barabasz A. (1993). Effects of Flotation REST and Visual Imagery on Athletic Performance: Tennis. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.79-86.New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Richardson S. (1997). Enhancing Rowing Ergometer Performance Through Flotation REST. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.*

Stanley J., Mahoney M.& Reppert S. (1982). REST and the Enhancement of Sports Performance: A Panel Presentation and Discussion. 2nd International Conference on REST. pp.168-183. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Wagaman J. & Barabasz A. (1993). Flotation REST and Imagery in the Improvement of Collegiate Athletic Performance: Basketball. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.87-92. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Other Atkinson R. (1993). Short-Term Exposure to REST: Enhancement Performance on a Signal-Detection Task. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.93-100. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Barabasz M. & Barabasz A. (1997). REST Effects on Human Performance. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.*

Melchiori L.G. & Barabasz A.F. (1990). Effects of Flotation REST on Simulated Instrument Flight Performance. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.196-203. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

O’Leary D.S. & Heilbronner R.L. (1985). Flotation Rest and Information Processing: A Reaction Time Study. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.50-61. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

 

Creativity Enhancement

Literature on REST Research Enhancement of Creativity Baker D.A.(1987). The Effects of REST and Hemispheric Synchronization Compared to the Effects of REST and Guided Imagery on the Enhancement of Creativity in Problem-Solving. 2nd International Conference on REST. pp.122-126. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications

Metcalfe J. & Suedfeld P. (1990). Enhancing the Creativity of Psychologists Through Flotation REST. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.204-212. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press. Vartarian O.A. (1997). The Effects of Flotation REST on Musical Creativity. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.*

 

Chronic Pain and Rheumatoid Arthritis

Borrie R. (1997). The Benefits of Flotation REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy) in a Pain Management Program. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.

McCormick B.A., Shafransky D.R., Fine T.H. & Turner J.W. Jr. (1997). Effects of Flotation REST on Plasma Cortisol in Rheumatoid Arthritis. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.

Mereday C., Lehmann C. & Borrie R. (1990). Flotation For The Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.255-259. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Shafransky D.R., McCormick B.A., Fine T.H. & Turner J. Jr. (1997). Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) on Serological Markers of Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.

Turner J. Jr., Deleon A., Gibson C. & Fine T.H. (1993). Effects of Flotation REST on Range Motion, Grip Strength and Pain in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 297-306. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

 

Dieting

Barabasz M. (1993). REST : A Key Facilitator in the Treatment of Eating Disorders. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.121-126. New York: Springer-VerlagNew York Inc.

Borrie R.A. (1985). Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy used in Weight Reduction. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.144-151. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Dyer R., Barabasz A. & Barabasz M. (1993). Twenty-Four Hours of Chamber REST Produces Specific Food Aversions in Obese Females. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.127-144. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

 

Treatment for Alcohol and Substance Abuse

Adams H. (1988).REST Arousability and the Nature of Alcohol and Substance Abuse. Journal of substance Abuse Treatment. Vol.5, pp. 77-81.USA.*

Barabasz M., Barabasz A. & Dyer R. (1993). Chamber REST Reduces Alcohol Consumption: 3, 6, 12, and 24 Hour Sessions. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.163-173. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Cooper G., Adams H.& Scott J. (1988).REST and Alcohol Consumption. Journal of substance Abuse Treatment. Vol.5, pp.59.USA.*

David B. (1997). A Pilot Test of REST as a Relapse Prevention Treatment for Alcohol and Drug Abusers. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.*

DiRito D. (1993). Motivational Factors in Alcohol Consumption: Extending Hull’s Model. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.157-162. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 

 

Smoking Cessation  (Quitting Smoking)

Barabasz M. & Barabasz A. (1993). Treatment of Trichotillomania and Smoking with Hypnosis and REST. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp.145-
156. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Fine T. & Bruno J. (1985). Floatation REST and Smoking Cessation: A preliminary Report, Health and Clinical Psychology. North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.*

Ramirez C. (1985). Restricted Environmental Stimulation Techniques in Smoking Cessation in a Latin American Country. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.152-166. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

 

Behavioral Therapy

Borrie R., Dana J., Perry S., & Friedman M. (1993). Flotation REST, Physical Therapy and Psychological Intervention in the Treatment of Physical Disabilities. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 289-296. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Cahn H.A. (1985). Sensory Isolation used with Cognition Modification Training to Restore Medically Declared Unfit Persons to Duty and Reduce Absenteeism in City of Phoenix Maintenance Workers. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.167-178. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Grunberg N. E. (1990). Potential Applications of Restricted Environmental Stimulus Therapy in Behavioral Health. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.36-50. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Ramirez C.E., Suedfeld P., Remick R.A. & Fleming J.A.E. (1990). Potential Beneficial Effect of REST on Patients with Electroconvulsive Therapy. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.188-195. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Rzewnicki R., Wallbaum A.B.C., Steel H. & Suedfeld P. (1990). REST for Muscle Contraction Headaches; A Comparison of Two REST Environments Combined with Progressive Muscle Relaxation Training. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.245-254. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Dr. Suchurbruck, Dr. Berman & Tapprich J. (1997). Treatment of Psychosomatic Illness Through Mental Training and Floatation in Oxygenated Magnesium Sulfate Saturated Baths. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.

Tikalsky F.D.(1990). Restricted Environmental Stimulation, Relaxation Therapy, Social Support and Mental Imagery as a Treatment Regimen in Breast Cancer. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp267-271. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

 

Anxiety

O’Toole P. & Barabasz M. (1997). Effects of Rational Emotive Therapy and REST on Social Anxiety. 6th International REST Conference. San Francisco.

Pudvah M.B. & Rzewnicki R. (1990). Six Months in the Tank: The Long-Term Effects of Flotation Isolation on State Anxiety, Hostility, and Depression. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.79-85. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

 

Children with Autism

Harrison J. & Barabasz A. (1993). REST as a Treatment for Children with Autism. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 269-280. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Suedfeld P. & Schwartz G. (1980). Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) as a Treatment for Autistic Children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. Vol.4, #3, pp. 196-201. William & Wilkins Co.

 

Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) 

Goldstein D.D. & Jessen W.E. (1990). Flotation Effect on Premenstrual Syndrome. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.260-266. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Jessen W. (1993). The Effects of Consecutive Floats and Their Timing on Premenstrual Syndrome. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 281-288. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

 

Physiological Effects

Barabasz M., O’Neill M. & Scoggin G. (1990). The Physiological Panic Button: New Data. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.112-119. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Budzynski T.H. (1990). Hemespheric Asymmetry and REST. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Theoretical and Empirical Developments in Flotation REST. Pp. 2-21. New York: Sringer-Verlag New York Inc.

Ewy G., Sershon P., Freundlich T. (1990). The Presence or Absence of Light in the REST Experience: Effects on Plasma Cortisol, Blood Pressure and Mood. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.120- 133. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Fine T., Mills D. & Turner J. Jr. (1993). Differential Effects of Wet and Dry Flotation REST on EEG Frequency and Amplitude. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. 205-213. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Fine T. & Turner J.W. (1985). The Use of Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) in the Treatment of Essential Hypertension. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.136-143. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Fine T.& Turner J.W. (1987).The Effect of flotation REST on EMG Biofeedback and Plasma Cortisol. 2nd International Conference on REST. pp.148-155. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Francis W.D. & Stanley J.M. (1985). The Effects of Restricted Environmental Stimulation on Physiological and Cognitive Indices. First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.40-49. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Malowitz R., Tortora T. & Lehmann C.A. (1990). Effects of Floating in a Saturated Epsom Salts Solution Disinfected with Bromine on the Aerobic Microbial Flora of the Skin. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.139-150. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Ruzyla-Smith P. & Barabasz A. (1993). Effects of Flotation REST on the Immune Response: T-Cells, B-Cells, Helper and Suppressor Cells. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 223-238. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Steel G. (1993). Relaxed and Alert:Patterns of T-Wave Amplitude and Heart Rate in a REST Environment. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 249-260. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Turner J.W. & Fine T.H. (1985).Hormonal Changes Associated with Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy.First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. pp.17-39. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Turner J.W. & Fine T.H. (1990). Restricted Environmental Stimulation Influences Plasma Cortisol Levels and Their Variability. Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. pp.71-78. Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Turner J. Jr. & Fine T.H. (1993). The Physiological Effects of Flotation REST. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 215-222. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Turner J.W. Jr., Fine T. & Hamad N.M. (1997). Plasma Catecholamine Activity During Flotation REST.6th International REST Conference.San Francisco*

Turner J. Jr., Gerard W., Hyland J., Nieland P. & Fine T. (1993). Effects of Wet and Dry Flotation REST on Blood Pressure and Plasma Cortisol. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 239-248. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

Turner J., Fine T.H., McGrady A. & Higgins J.T.(1987). Effects of Biobehaviorally Assisted Relaxation Training on Blood Pressure and Hormone Levels and Their Variation in Normotensives and Essential Hypertansives. 2nd International Conference on REST. pp.87-109. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Turner J. Jr. , Shroeder H. & Fine T.H. (1993). A Method for Continuous Blood Sampling During Flotation REST. Clinical and Experimental Restricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. pp. 261-267. New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

 

Other REST Literature

Barabasz A.F. & Barabasz M. (eds.) (1993). Clinical and ExperimentalRestricted Environmental Stimulation: New Developments and Perspectives. (Based on the 4th International Conference on REST) New York: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.  

Fine T.H. & Turner J.W. (eds.). (1983). First International Conference on REST and Self-Regulation. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Fine T.H. & Turner J.W. (eds.). (1985). 2nd International Conference on REST. Toledo, Ohio: IRIS Publications.

Fine T.H. & Turner J.W. (eds.). (1990). Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Research and Commentary. (Based on the 3rd International Conference on REST). Toledo, Ohio: Medical College of Ohio Press.

Suedfeld P. & Turner J.W. & Fine T.H. (eds.). (1990). Restricted Environmental Stimulation: Theoretical and Empirical Developments in Flotation REST New York : Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

This list was compiled by the Lazy Frog Float Centre.

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